Mennonites in Canada
History Series

Credit: MAID CA CMBS NP029-01-12

 

The Mennonites in Canada includes three volumes:

Volume 1 “Mennonites in Canada, 1786-1920″ covers the Mennonite experience in Canada from the time of the first documented immigrants in 1786 to the Niagara Peninsula in Ontario from Pennsylvania through the conclusion of World War I. This volume has gone through three printings, the last two by the Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. The table of contents for volume 1 is listed below.

Volume 2 “Mennonites in Canada, 1920-1949” covers theological difficulties within the Mennonite groups already settled in Canada, the emigration of some conservative groups to Latin America, the massive immigration of more Mennonites from Ukraine during the 1920s, and the Mennonite experience during the Depression, leading up to World War II. The table of contents for volume 2 is listed below.

Volume 3 “Mennonites in Canada, 1939-1970” brings the story up to 1970, including the World War II experience, continued immigration after the war, the massive economic changes within the community during the 1950s and 1960s, and the impact on Mennonite life as they further integrated into Canadian society. Publication was in 1996 by the University of Toronto Press. A lengthy bibliography on Mennonites in Canada after 1939 prepared by T.D. Regehr is listed below. 

Mennonites in Canada, 1786-1920

The history of a separate people

Frank H. Epp (Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1974), 480 p.

Download available through the Milton Good Library.

Table of Contents
  1. The Most Separated Brethren
    • Reform in Sixteenth-Century Europe
    • The Anabaptist movements
    • Menno Simons as leader
    • Bitter persecutions and dispersions
    • Holland, England, and Switzerland
    • Amish and other separations
  2. On to Russia and Canada
    • Problems in Prussia
    • The American Revolution
    • Advantages in British North America
    • Early settlement in Upper Canada
    • Indians and their reserves
    • The German Land Company
  3. Pioneers in a New Land
    • Obstacles to be overcome
    • Small and scattered settlements
    • Nature and the natives
    • Migrations from the U.S.A. and Europe
    • Community spirit and neighbourliness
    • Resourcefulness on the frontier
  4. The Nonresistors and the Militia
    • Religious particularism and pluralism
    • Precedents in British law
    • Upper Canada and the militia
    • Petitioning for exemption
    • The War of 1812
    • A sustained lobby
  5. The Congregations and their Leaders
    • The role of the clergy
    • Ministry at the Twenty
    • Bishops and their districts
    • Benjamin Eby and congregational nurture
    • Schools and books
    • The wider fellowship
  6. Mid-Century Renewal Movements
    • Early attempts at renewal
    • Separations in Pennsylvania
    • Ferment at the Twenty
    • Formation of a General Conference
    • Other New Mennonite movements
    • The Mennonite Brethren in Christ
  7. Revitalization and Separation in Russia
    • The Commonwealth in Russia
    • Emergence of the Kleine Gemeinde
    • The Reforms of Johann Cornies
    • Formation of the Mennonite Brethren
    • Renewal and the Grosze Gemeinde
    • The effects of Imperial rivalries
  8. Mass Migration from Russia to Manitoba
    • The work of Hespeler and Shantz
    • Delegations to North America
    • Canada or the United States
    • Departure from Russia
    • Reception in Canada
  9. The East and West Reserves
    • Problems and early disappointments
    • Recreating the Commonwealth
    • Commendations from Canadian officialdom
    • Municipalities, railroads, and schools
    • Prosperity and independence
    • The end of the reserves
  10.  An Awakening at the Centre
    • The church losing out
    • Growth of the General Conferences
    • John F. Funk and the old church
    • Sunday schools and revivalism
    • Adjustment to change in Ontario
    • Missions, education, and publications
  11.  The Stand of the Old Order
    • Reaction to newness and change
    • Personalities and issues
    • The Old Order asserts itself
    • Differentiation and fragmentation
    • New and Old among the Amish
    • Amish separations in Ontario
  12. . The Church Struggles in Manitoba
    • The resistance to progress
    • Influences from the south
    • Break-up of the Kleine Gemeinde
    • Progressivism in the West Reserve
    • Break-up of the Bergthaler
    • The Old Colony and the Brethren
  13.  Settlement in Alberta and Saskatchewan
    • The Opening of the West
    • Settlements in Alberta
    • Two reserves in Saskatchewan
    • Other scattered settlements
    • Congregational and continental formations
    • The coming of Canadian conferences
  14.  Education: Church v. State
    • Mennonite school systems
    • Progressives and conservatives
    • H.H. Ewert and the Gretna school
    • Politics and patriotism
    • Saskatchewan school problems
    • The War and educational compulsion
  15.  The War and Military Exemption
    • Preparedness and the lack of it
    • Early war measures
    • Assurances from Ottawa
    • The conscription crisis
    • Exceptions and exemptions
    • Certification and registration
    • Confusion to the end
  16.  War’s Aftermath and Mennonite Exclusion
    • Censorship of things German
    • Conscription problems in the United States
    • Migrations to Canada
    • The press and public opinion
    • Mennonite entry barred
    • Emigration and immigration

Mennonites in Canada, 1920-1940

A people's struggle for survival

Frank H. Epp (Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1982), 640 p.

Download available through the Milton Good Library.

Table of Contents
  1. The Uncertain Future
    • The need for land
    • The importance of tolerance
    • The lack of solidarity
    • Diversity within a corporate personality
    • The international connections
  2. Reaffirmation of the Fundamentals
    • Fundamentalism in America
    • Fundamentalism among Old Mennonites
    • Fundamentalism in Ontario
    • Fundamentalism and divisiveness
    • Fundamentalism and fundamentals elsewhere
  3. Emigration to Latin America
    • Private vs. public schools
    • The crushing of Mennonite resistance
    • The search for a new country
    • Emigration to Mexico
    • Emigration to Paraguay
  4. Immigration from Russia
    • Mennonites and Russia
    • Working for survival
    • A government and a railway
    • Preparing the way in Canada
    • The Immigration under way
  5. Community-Building: Settlements
    • Settlement organization and processes
    • Homesteads and villages
    • Big farms and Mennonite terms
    • Brush land and dry land
    • Peace River and Reesor
    • Gardens, orchards, and dairies
  6. CommunityBuilding: Congregations
    • The different cultural groups
    • Differences among the Russlaender
    • Ontario and Manitoba
    • Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Colombia
    • Congregational life
  7. The International Connection
    • From civil war to collectivization
    • Canada once again closed
    • Popular images and public opinion
    • New homelands for some
    • International Mennonite concern
  8. Overcoming the Depression
    • Isolated fields: Alberta
    • Greener fields and co-ops: B.C. and Ontario
    • The co-op movement in Manitoba
    • Individualism and secularization
    • Resistance to secularized aid
    • Medical and other institutions
  9. Federation and fragmentation
    • Denominationalism and provincialism
    • Denominationalism: CMs, MBs
    • Denominationalism: Conference Mennonites
    • Co-operation attempted and failed
    • Fragmentation in Southern Manitoba
    • Fragmentation in Southern Ontario
  10. Keeping the Young People
    • Children and Sunday schools
    • Youth activity and character education
    • Music, choirs, and choristers
    • Bible schools and evangelism
    • Marriage and vocation
    • Secondary and post-secondary educaton
  11. Preserving the Culture
    • Culture interpreted and explained
    • Varieties of separate culture
    • The nonconformed life style
    • Language and values
    • Ethnicity and racial identity
    • The dialects and popular culture
  12. Facing the World
    • Separation and involvement
    • For and against Germanism
    • The Nations and the Kingdom
    • Four conferences on peace and war
    • Mennonites, militarism, and their majesties

Mennonites in Canada, 1939-1970

A People Transformed

Bibliography prepared by T.D. Regehr

© T.D. Regehr 1996, All Rights Reserved

Archival Collections
  • Abbotsford Growers Cooperative Union
  • Alberta Archives
    • Annual Reports of the Department of Agriculture for the Province of Alberta
    • Annual Reports of the Department of Economic Affairs
  • Amish Historical Library (AHL), Aylmer, Ontario
  • Archive Nationale, Paris
    • Records of the International Refugee Organization (IRO)
  • Archives of the Mennonite Church, Goshen, Indiana (Send email)
    • Harold S. Bender Papers
    • Mennonite Board of Missions and Charities records
    • Mennonite Central Committee records
    • Mennonite World Conference records
  • British Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Annual Reports, 1935-1971.
  • Centre for Mennonite Brethren Studies in Winnipeg
    • Fuersorgekomitee Protokolle (Board of Spiritual and Social Concerns) Minutes and Correspondence of the Northern (Canadian) District Mennonite Brethren Conference
    • Benjamin B. Janz Papers
    • Board of Christian Education records
    • Mennonite Brethren Bible College records
    • Minute Books of various Canadian Mennonite Brethren Churches (on microfilm)
    • A. A. Unruh Papers
    • Yearbooks of the Northern (later Canadian) District Mennonite Brethren Conference
    • Yearbooks of the General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches of North America
  • Centre for Mennonite Brethren Studies in Fresno
    • Fuersorgekomitee minutes and correspondence of the North American conference.
    • Mennonite Brethren Board of Missions and Service records.
  • Columbia Bible College (CBC), Clearbrook, British Columbia
    • Minutes of the Mennonite Brethren Churches of British Columbia.
    • Newspaper clippings file dealing with Mennonites in British Columbia
    • A. A. Wiens Papers
  • Conrad Grebel College Archives (CGC), Waterloo, Ontario (Send email)
    • Calendar of appointments of the Mennonite Church of Ontario
    • Conference of Historic Peace Churches (CHPC) records
    • Conrad Grebel College records
    • Frank H. Epp papers
    • J. B. Martin paers
    • Mennonite Conference of Ontario records
    • Military Problems Committee records
    • Protokollbuch des Hochschul Komitees (Yarrow)
    • Taped recollections of a Workshop on “Home Missions, held at Conrad Grebel College on 5 October 1989.
  • Department of National Defence, (DND) Directorate of History files, Ottawa.
  • Deutsches Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, Germany.
    • Bestand 6 Records of the Reichsministerium fuer die besetzten Ostgebiete
    • Bestand 59 Records of the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle
    • Records of the Organization for the Military Government of Germany (United States) (OMGUS) (on microfilm)
  • J. H. Enns autobiography entitled “Dem Lichte Zu! Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben,” made available by members of the family.
  • International Red Cross archives, Geneva, Switzerland
  • League of Nations Archives, Geneva, Switzerland.
    • Records of the League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • Kleine Gemeinde/Evangelical Mennonite Conference (EMC) Archives, Steinbach, Manitoba.
  • Mennonite Educational Institute, Clearbrook, B.C.
    • Protokolle des mennonitischen Erziehungs-Institutes
  • Mennonite Heritage Centre (MHC), Winnipeg, Manitoba
    • Gerhard Lohrenz papers
    • Canadian Mennonite Bible College records
    • Canadian Mennonite Board of Colonization (Board of Colonization) records
    • Mennonite Pioneer Mission records
    • I. G. Neufeld papers
    • J. D. Nickel Papers
    • Walter Quiring papers
    • J. J. Thiessen papers
    • Vertical Files (various subjects)
  • National Achives of Canada (NAC), Ottawa, Ontario
    • Manuscript Group (MG) 26, J., William Lyon Mackenzie King Diaries
    • Manuscript Group (MG) 26, J., William Lyon Mackenzie King papers
    • Record Group (RG) 2, Privy Council records and Orders in Council
    • Record Group (RG) 13, Department of Justice records
    • Record Group (RG) 14, Records of Parliament
      • Vol. 653, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Commons to accompany the Fourth Report of the Standing Committee on Public Accounts – re Japanese claims.
    • Record Group (RG) 19, Department of Finance records
      • Vol. 589 Department of Finance, Sale of Dominion of Canada Securities to Mennonites.
    • Record Group (RG) 22, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources records,
      • Vol. 82, Mennonites and conscientious objectors
    • Record Group (RG) 24, Department of National Defence records,
      • Vols. 2028-2029, Treatment of Conscientious Objectors
      • Vol. 741, National relief agencies, including some Mennonite relief agencies.
    • Record Group (RG) 25, Department of External Affairs records,
      • Vol. 3004, Report of the British Columbia Security Commission
      • Vol. 1724, Mennonites returning from Mexico
    • Record Group, (RG) 26, Citizenship and Immigration records
      • Vol. 122, Return of Mennonites from Mexico, 1930-1950.
    • Record Group (RG) 27, Department of Labour records
      • Vols. 275-276, 966, 3028, 3038, 3041, various files pertaining to Canadian immigration policies and their impact on labour and employment after World War II
      • Vols. 991, 131, 132 and 285. Alternative Service workers
      • Vol. 1501, Conscientious Objectors, Mennonites, 1941-42
      • Vol. 1514, Mennonite Agricultural Advisory Committee, 1943.
    • Record Group (RG) 28, Department of Munitions and Supply records
      • Vol. 149, Mennonite Agricultural Advisory Committee, Altona Extraction of Soya Bean oil, 1943.
    • Record Group (RG) 29 Department of National Health and Welfare records
      • Vol. 29, Canada Pension Plan, Mennonites Amish and Hutterites.
    • Record Group (RG) 30, Canadian National Railways records
      • Various files dealing with Mennonite settlement and colonization, mainly in British Columbia and northern Alberta
    • Record Group (RG) 33/69, Royal Commission to Investigate Complaints of Canadian Citizens of Japanese Origin who Resided in British Columbia in 1941, That Their Real and Personal Property had been Disposed of by the Custodian of Enemy Property a Prices Less that the Fair Market Value, 1935-1950.
    • Record Group (RG) 35/7, Vol. 21, Interdepartmental committees
      • Vol. 21, “Historical Account of the Wartime Activities of the Alternative Service Branch, Department of Labour, 11 April 1946.
    • Record Group (RG) 38, Department of Veterans Affairs records
      • Vol. 403 and 404, Veterans’ Land Administration purchase of Japanese farms from the Custodian of Enemy Property.
    • Record Group (RG) 39, Department of Forestry records
      • Vol. 41, Alternative Service and Conscientious Objectors, 1940-41.
    • Record Group (RG) 64, Wartime Prices and Trade Board records
      • Various files dealing with agricultural products, including files on the grain trade and on berries in British Columbia
    • Record Group (RG) 76, Department of Immigration records, particularly Vols. 160-161, 173- 176, 195-197, 855.
    • Record Group (RG) 80, Vol. 22, Board of Grain Commissioners, File re Mennonites working as grain handlers, 1943-44.
    • Record Group (RG) 88, Vols. 20, 41-47, Surveys and Mapping, including Alternative Service Camps and Conscientious Objector Camps
    • Record Group (RG) 117, Custodian of Enemy Property, Microfilm reels C-9434-35 and C- 9470-71, and Vol. 1, File 2.
      • Personnel Records Centre, Military Service records
  • Public Archives of British Columbia
    • Manuscript by Rigenda Sumida
    • Newspaper index and files re Mennonites
  • T. D. Regehr papers, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
    • Anonymous handwritten manuscript entitled “Die Flucht as dem Wartegau 1945,” together with related and supporting documents, made available by George K. Epp.
    • “Exodus” painting and manuscript by Agatha Schmidt
    • Personal recollections and correspondence of Helene Dueck, Clearbrook, B. C.
    • “Dem Lichte Zu! Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben,” by J. H. Enns, made available by members of the family.
    • Manuscript by Frank H. Epp, entitled, “One Mennonite in Politics. A Personal Statement in response to many inquiries,” 1975.
    • Manuscript by Harold Jantz entitled “Closing of Coaldale Mission Announced, 2 September 1966.
    • Manuscript by Peter H. Regehr entitled “Wogen und Wellen in der Drangsalsperiode in der Mennonitischen Bruedergemeinde zu Coaldale um die Jahreswende 1956-1957.”
    • Manuscript by Cornelius Krahn entitled “The Ethnic Origin of the Mennonites From Russia Now Displaced Persons,” from the David G. Rempel papers.
    • Manuscript by Jash Leewe entitled “Onnse Ieaschte Missjoonsreis ooda Waut je emma fonn’ne Missjoon weete wulle oba kjeena junt fetalle deed.”
    • Manuscript by Peter Penner on the history of Mennonite Brethren missionary work in India.
  • Saskatchewan Archives Board (SAB)
  • United Church Archives, Victoria College, Toronto
    • Board of Home Missions
    • United Church of Canada, Manitoba Conference, Digest of Minutes and Proceedings of various conferences.
  • United States National Archives, Washington, D. C.
    • Record Group 59 Records of the Department of the Secretary of State
    • Record Group (RG) 260, Organization for the Military Government of Germany (United States) (OMGUS). Many of these records are the same ones that are also available on microfilm at the Deutsches Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, but the Washington collection has been screened and rearranged.
  • University of British Columbia Archives
  • University of British Columbia Library, Agriculture and Forest Products Library.
  • Weierhof Mennonitische Forschungsstelle, Weierhof, Pfalz, Germany
    • Christian Neff papers
    • Records of Christenpflicht
    • Records of the Hilfswerk der Vereinigung der Deutschen Mennoniten.
    • Benjamin H. Unruh papers
    • Unsorted materials pertaining to the care and accommodation of refugees from the Soviet Union, Poland and Prussia. These include reports on the various “Betreuungsbezirke,” and of various “Gruppenbetreuer” and “Mitarbeiter.
Government Publications
  • ALBERTA. Department of Agriculture Reports
  • ALBERTA. Department of Education Reports
  • ALBERTA. Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs Reports
  • CANADA. Census of Canada, 1941, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991.
  • CANADA. Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance, Report (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1982).
  • CANADA. House of Commons Committee on War Expenditures and Economies 1946, Proceedings and Reports
  • CANADA. House of Commons Debates
  • CANADA. Proceedings of the Senate Committee on Immigration and Labour, 1946.
  • CANADA. Statutes of Canada, various years.
  • CANADA. White Paper on Employment and Income with Specific Reference to the Initial Period of Reconstruction (Ottawa: King’s Printer, 1945).
  • The Canada Gazette
  • ONTARIO. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Annual Reports
  • Agricultural Statistics for Ontario
  • Agricultural Marketing Enquiry Committee Report, 1961
  • Ontario Economic Council, Ontario: A Society in Transition, 1972.
  • SASKATCHEWAN. Reports of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life (Regina: Queen’s Printer, 1955-57).
Interviews
  • Peter Bargen, by Frank H. Epp on 22 January 1984
  • C. J. Dyck, by T. D. Regehr, in 1994
  • Peter J. and Elfrieda Dyck, by Robert Kreider, in 1988.
  • Ernest and Siegfried Enns, by T. D. Regehr, in 1989.
  • William Kruger, by T. D. Regehr, on 10 August 1994.
  • Jacob Loewen, by T. D. Regehr, on 21 December 1988.
  • Peter D. Loewen, by T. D. Regehr, 17 December 1988
  • Agatha E. Klassen, by T. D. Regehr, 18 December 1988
  • Henry P. Nikkel, by T. D. Regehr, 4 September 1993
  • John B. Toews, by T. D. Regehr, 1 and 2 Febraury 1993
  • Peggy and Walter Regehr, by T. D. Regehr
  • William Schellenberg, by T. D. Regehr, 18 December 1988
  • William Snyder, by Frank H. Epp, 8 March 1962, and by T. D. Regehr in 1993.
Scholarly Journals and Magazines
  • Agricultural History
  • Canadian Ethnic Studies
  • Canadian Historical Review
  • Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics
  • Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science.
  • Direction
  • Journal of Mennonite Studies
  • Mennonite Life
  • Mennonite Mirror
  • Mennonite Quarterly Review
  • The Voice of the Mennonite Brethren Bible College
Newspapers and Popular Journals and Magazines
  • Abbotsford, Sumas, Matsqui News
  • Canadian Mennonite
  • Carillon News
  • Chilliwack Progress
  • Christian Monitor
  • Coaldale Flyer
  • Conrad Grebel College Bulletin
  • Der Bote
  • Der Mennonit
  • Gospel Herald
  • Herald of Truth
  • Mennogespraech
  • Mennonit
  • Mennonite Brethren Herald
  • Mennonite Historian
  • Mennonite Reporter
  • Mennonitische Lehrerzeitung
  • Mennonitische Rundschau
  • Mennonitische Welt
  • The Beacon. Canada’s National CO Magazine
  • The Mennonite
  • The Ontario Mennonite Evangel
  • Unser Blatt
  • Western Business and Industry
  • Western Weekly Law Reports
Reference Works
  • Artibise, Alan F. J., Western Canada Since 1870: A Select Bibliography and Guide (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1978).
  • Aylmer Amish Directory, 1990
  • Canada Year Book, various years
  • Canadian Encylopedia
  • Canadian Who’s Who, various years.
  • Conference of Mennonites in Canada Yearbooks.
  • Directories of the Brethren in Christ Church
  • Leacey, F. H., ed., Historical Statistics of Canada, Second Edition (Ottawa: Statistics Canada and the Social Science Federation of Canada, 1983).
  • Mennonite Encyclopedia (ME), Vols. 1-4 (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1956-1959).
  • Mennonite Encyclopedia (ME), Vol. 5 (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1990).
  • Mennonite Yearbook and Directory (Scottdale, Pa.: Mennonite Publishing House), from 1939 through 1971.
  • Urquhart, M. C., and K. A. H. Buckley, Historical Statistics of Canada (Toronto: Macmillan, 1965).
  • Warte-Jahrbuch fuer die Mennonitische Gemeinschaft in Canada, 1943.
  • Year Book of the General Conference of the Mennonite Church of North America (North Newton, Kansas: Mennonite Publishing Office), from 1939 through 1971.
  • Yearbook of the General Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church of North America (Hillsboro, Kansas: Mennonite Brethern Publishing House), from 1939 through 1971.
  • Yearbooks of the Canadian Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches
  • Yearbook of the Northern District Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church of North America
Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses

Anderson, Alan B., “Assimilation in the Bloc Settlement of North-Central Saskatchewan,” Ph. D., University of Saskatchewan, 1972.

Appavoo, Muthiah David., “Religion and Family Among the Markham Mennonites,” Ph. D., York University, 1978.

Bargen, Peter F., “The Mennonites of Alberta,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1953.

Bowen, Dawn S., “The Transformation of a Northern Alberta Frontier Community,” M. A. University of Maine at Orono, 1990.

Brubacher, Paul Harold, “Dimensions of Social Interaction between Old Order Mennonites and Non-Mennonites in the Mount Forest Area,” M. Sc., University of Guelph, 1984.

Buhr, Joanna, “Pursuit of a Vision: Persistence and Accommodation among Coaldale Mennonites from the mid-nineteen twenties to World War II,” M. A., University of Calgary, 1986.

Buhr, Joanna, “Kurt Janz: The Struggling Phoenix,” Unpublished Paper made available by the author.

Burkinshaw, Robert K., “Strangers and Pilgrims in Lotus Land: Conservative Protestantism in British Columbia, 1917-1981,” Ph. D., University of British Columbia, 1988.

Cressman, Kenneth, “A Descriptive Summary and Analysis of the Changing Settlement and Occupational Pattersn of the Mennonites and Amish Mennonites of Wilmot Township,” M. A., University of Waterloo.

DeLisle, D., “The Spatial Organization and Intensity of Agriculture in the Mennonite Villages of Southern Manitoba,” Ph. D., McGill University, 1975.

Dickey, Dale F., “The Tent Evangelism Movement of the Mennonite Church: A Dramatistic Analysis,” Ph. D., Bowling Green State University, 1980.

Dill, Vicky Schreiber, “The Idea of Wilderness in the Mennonite Novels of Rudy Wiebe,” Ph. D., Notre Dame University, 1982.

Doerksen, John George, “History of Education of the Mennonite Brethren in Canada,” M. Ed., University of Manitoba, 1963.

Doerksen, John George, “History, Philosophy and Development of Mennonite Brethren Bible College,” Ed. D., University of North Dakota, 1968.

Doerksen, Bernard, “Mennonite Brethren Missions: Historical Development, Philosophy, and Policies,” D. Miss., Fuller Theological Seminary, 1986.

Dreidger, Leo, “A Sect in Modern Society; a Case Study of the Old Colony Mennonites of Saskatchewan,” M. A., Univerity of Chicago, 1955,

Dyck, Harold J., “The Theological Development of the Evangelical Mennonite Conference formerly the Kleine Gemeinde from its Roots to the Presdent Day,” M. Div., Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary, 1977.

Dyck, Paul Irvin, “Emergence of New Castes in India,” M. A., University of Manitoba, 1970.

Elliott, David R., “The Dispensational Theology and Political Ideology of William Aberhart,” M. A., University of Calgary, 1975.

Elliott, David R., “Studies of Eight Canadian Fundamentalists,” Ph. D., University of British Columbia, 1989.

Ens, Adolf, “Mennonite Relations with Governments: Western Canada, 1870-1925,” Ph. D., University of Ottawa, 1979.

Epp, Frank Henry, “An Analysis of Germanism and National Socialism in the Immigrant Newspapers of a Canadian Minority Group, The Mennonites, in the 1930s,” Ph. D., University of Minnesota, 1965.

Epp, Esther Ruth, “The Origins of Mennonite Central Committee (Canada),” M. A., University of Manitoba, 1980.

Fitzgerald, Denis, “Pioneer Settlement in Nrothern Saskatchewan,” Ph. D., University of Manitoba, 1966.

Fransen, David Warren, “Canadian Mennonites and Conscientious Objection in World War II,” M. A., University of Waterloo, 1977.

Friesen, Richard John, “Old Colony Mennonite Settlements in Saskatchewan: A Study in Settlement Change,” M. A., University of Alberta, 1975.

Forschner, Gisela, “Growing Up Canadian. Twelve Case Studies of German Immigrant Families in Alberta,” Ph. D., University of Alberta, 1975.

Froese, Leonard, “Das paedagogishe Kultursystem der mennonitischen Siedlungsgruppe in Russland,” Dissertation zur Erlangung des Dokorgrades der Philosophischen Fakultaet der Georg-August-Universitaet zu Goettingen, 1949.

Gerwin, Elizabeth, “A Survey of the German-Speaking Population in the Province of Alberta,” M. A., University of Alberta, 1938.

Gibson, J. R., “A Comparison of Anglo-Saxon, Mennonite and Dutch Farms in the Lower Fraser Valley: A Methodological Study of Areal Differentiation and Relative Influences of the Physical and Cultural Environments,” M. A., University of Oregon, Cornvallis, 1959.

Grenke, Arthur, “The Formation and Early Development of an Urban Ethnic Community: A Case Study of the Germans in Winnipeg, 1872-1919,” Ph. D., University of Manitoba, 1975.

Hamm, Peter, “Continuity and Change Among Canadian Mennonite Brethren, 1925-1975: A Study of Socialization and Secularization in Sectarianism,” Ph. D., McMaster University, 1978.

Harder, M. S., “The Origin, philosophy and development of education among the Mennonites,” Ph. D., University of Southern California, 1949.

Heidebrecht, Herbert V., Values of Mennonite Youth in Alberta, M. A., University of Calgary, 1973.

Hildebrand, Hilda Ann, “Mennonite Mutual Aid and the Concept of Social Welfare. A Case Study of the Bergthaler Waisenamt and the Co-operative Movement in the Rhineland Muncipality,” M. S. W., University of Manitoba, 1989.

Hiller, Harry H., “A Critical Analysis of the Role of Religion in a Canadian Populist Movement: The Emergence and Dominance of the Social Credit Party in Alberta,” Ph. D., McMaster University, 1972.

Howell-Jones, G. I., “A Century of Settlement Change: A Study of the Evolution of Settlement Patterns in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1966.

Janzen, William, “The Limits of Liberty: The Experience of the Mennonites, Hutterites and Doukhobors,” Ph. D., Carleton University, 1981.

Klassen, Peter G., “A History of Mennoite Education in Manitoba,” M. Ed., University of Manitoba, 1958.

Klassen, Peter G., “A History of Mennonite Education in Canada, 1786-1960,” D. Ed., University of Toronto, 1970.

Klippenstein, Lawrence, “Mennonite Pacifism and State Service in Russia: A Study in Church-State Relations, 1789-1936,” Ph. D., University of Minnesota, 1984.

Krahn, John Jacob, “A History of the Mennonites in British Columbia,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1955.

Laurence, Hugh Getty, “Change in Religion, Economics, and Boundary Conditions among Amish Mennonites in Southwestern Ontario,” Ph. D., McGill University, 1980.

Lederach, Paul M., “The History of Religious Education in the Mennonite Church,” Ph. D., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1949.

Lichti, James, I., “Religious Identity vs. `Aryan’ Identity: German Mennonites and Hutterites under the Third Reich,” M. A., San Francisco State University, 1989.

MacLachlan, J. M., “The Mennonites in B. C.,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1940.

Martens, Hildegard Margo, “The Relationship of Religious to Socio-Economic Divisions Among the Mennonites of Dutch-Prussian Descent in Canada,” Ph. D., University of Toronto, 1977.

Melton, Norma, “Essential Servants: Immigrant Domestic Servants on the Canadian Prairies,” M. A., University of Calgary,

Miller, Ira E., “The Development and Present Status of Mennonite Secondary and Higher Education in the United States and Canada,” Ed. D., Temple University, 1953.

Nafziger, Estel, “The Mennonite Ethic in the Weberian Framework,” M. A., University of Michigan, 1962.

Nakashima, Kimiaki, “Economic Aspects of the Japanese Evacuation from the Canadian Pacific Coast,” M. A., McGill University, 1946

Paetkau, Esther, “The Ministry of J. J. Thiessen in Saskatoon,” M. Div., Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saskatoon, 1979.

Paetkau, Henry, “A Struggle for Survival: The Russian Mennonite Immigrants in Ontario, 1924-1939,” M. A., University of Waterloo, 1977.

Paetkau, Henry, “Separation or Integration? The Russian Mennonite Immigrant Community in Ontario, 1924-45,” Ph. D., University of Western Ontario, 1986.

Peters, Jacob, “The Association of Relgious Affiliation, Socio-Economic Status, Generation and segregation with German Ethnocentrism,” M. A., University of Manitoba, 1971.

Peters, Jacob, “Organizational Change within a Religious Denomination: A Case Study of the Conference of Mennonites in Canada, 1903-1978,” Ph. D., University of Waterloo, 1986.

Reddig, Kenneth Wayne, “Manitoba Mennonites and the Winnipeg Mobilization Board in World War II,” M. A., University of Manitoba, 1989.

Redekop, Benjamin Wall, “The German Identity of Mennonite Brethren Immigrants in Canada, 1930-1960,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1990.

Redekop, Gloria, “Mennonite Women’s Societies in Canada: A Historical Study,” Ph. D., University of Ottawa, 1993.

Reeves, C. M., “The Establishment of the Kelowna Orcharding Area: A Study of Accommodation to Site and Situation,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1974.

Regier, Marie Joanna, “Mennonite TEaching and Practice in a Chinese Community,” B. Div., Chicago Theological Seminary, 1950.

Sawatzky, A. A., “The Mennonites of Alberta and Their Assimiation, M. A. Thesis, University of Alberta, 1964

Sawatsky, Rodney, “The Influence of Fundamentalism on Mennnite Nonresistance, 1908-44,” M. A., University of Minnesota, 1973.

Sawatsky, Rodney, “History and Ideology: American Mennonite Identity Through History,” Ph. D., Princeton University, 1977.

Schellenberg, Arnold, “A Study of Acculturation proneness of an ethnic subculture within an urban community: Mennonite Musicians in Winnipeg,” M. A. , University of Manitoba, 1968.

Schmidt, John P., “Pilgrims in Paradise: Sixty Years of Growth in the Mennonite Brethren Churches in British Columbia,” D. Min., Fuller Theological Seminary, 1991.

Schultz, Harold J., “William Aberhart and the Social Credit Party: A Political Biography,” Ph. D., Duke University, 1959.

Siemens, Alfred H., “Mennonite Settlements in the Lower Fraser Valley,” M. A., University of British Columbia, 1960.

Somuyiwa, M. O., “The Impact of Agricultural Credit Use on the Financial Progress of the Farm Firm in Western Manitoba,” M. Sc., University of Manitoba, 1974.

Stuerzbecher, Monika M., “Der Heimatbegriff in der Literatur der russischen Mennoniten,” Ph. D., McMaster University, 1987.

Thielman, George C., “The Mennonites. A Study of an Ethnic Group in Relation to the State and Community with Emphasis on Factors Contributing to the Success and Failure of its Adjustment to Canadian Ways of Living,” Ph. D., Western Reserve University, 1955.

Unger, Walter, “The Niagara Bible Conference,” Ph. D., Simon Fraser University, 1982.

Vanderhill, Burke G., “Settlement in the Forest Lands of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta: A Geographic Analysis,” Ph. D., University of Michigan, 1956.

Van Dyke, Edward, “Blumenort: A Study of Persistence in a Sect,” Ph. D., University of Alberta, 1972.

Warkentin, John H. “Mennonite Settlements in Southern Manitoba; A Study in Historical Geography,” Ph. D., University of Toronto, 1960.

Watts, Clayton R., “Studies of Mennonite Communities in Western Ontario,” Ph. D., George Washington University, 1942.

Wiebe, George, “The Hymnody of the Conference of Mennonites in Canada,” M. A., University of Southern California, 1962.

Wiens, Ruth, “A Study of the Present Task of the Sunday School in the Light of its Historical Background and Today’s Changing World,” Master of Religious Education, Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary, Fresno, 1965.

Wilson, Judith Pamela, “The legitimation of clerical authority: The case of the Conference of Mennonites in Canada,” M. A., University of Victoria, 1988.

Unpublished conference, seminar and symposium papers

Note: Copies of all these papers are in the possession of the author.

Ambrose, Linda M., “Canadian Youth in the 1940s: Helping to Shape the Postwar Society.” Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Historical Association, May 1992.

Anderson, Alan, and Leo Driedger, “The Mennonite Family: Culture and Kin in Rural Saskatchewan.” Place and Date of presentation not indicated.

Bechtel, Ken, “The Influence of World War II on Swiss Mennonite Theology.” Presented at a symposium on the influence of World War II on Canadian Mennonites, in 1987.

Bender, Ross T., “The Ontario Amish Mennonite Conference.” A Paper prepared for a course in Mennonite History at Goshen College in 1955.

Bergen, John J., “Some Inferences concerning the impact of World War II in Education among Mennonites in Canada.” Presented at a symposium on the influence of World War II on Canadian Mennonites, in 1987.

Blanchette, Sonia, “The History of Mennonite Brethren Churches in Quebec.” An essay prepared for a class in Mennonite Studies II at MBBC in 1986.

Block, Arthur, “Understanding the Profits from the Christian Perspective.” Place and date of presentation not indicated. A copy is at the Centre for Mennonite Studies, Winnipeg.

Bond, John B., and Carol D. H. Harvey, “Intergenerational Support in Rural Mennonite Families.” Presented at the 10th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association, in 1989.

Buhr, Joanna, “Kurt Janz: The Struggling Phoenix.” Draft copy made available courtesy of the author.

Burkholder, John Richard, “Mennonite Peace Theology: Reconnaisssance and Exploration.” Presented at Peace Colloquium in 1991.

Churchill, Kristopher, “Harnessing the Auto: Motorization and the Countryside in Ontario, 1900-20.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Clare, Terrence S., “Mennonites by the Sea. An Account in Brief of the Mennonite Presence in Atlantic Canada.” Paper prepared for an MBBC class in Mennonite Studies II, in 1991.

Cressman, Kenneth, “The Development of the Conservative Mennonite Church of Ontario.” Paper prepared for a sociology class at Conrad Grebel College in 1976.

Dahl, Edward, “Sharon Mennonite Collegiate Institute, 1945-1949.” Paper prepared for a History seminar at the University of British Columbia in 1968.

Dau, Joachim, “Trial by Fire. The East European Exodus – 1945.” Paper presented in a Mennonite Studies class at CMBC in 1987.

Derksen, Lynne, “Mennonite Pioneer Mission: to the Tarahumara Indians (Mexico).” Paper presented in a Mennonite Studies class at CMBC in 1977.

Driedger, Leo, “Urbanization of Mennonites in Post-war Canada.” Paper presented at a symposium on Mennonites in Canada in the 1950s, in 1988.

Driedger, Leo, “Canadian Mennonite Urbanism: Ethnic Villagers or Metropolitan Remnant?” Paper presented to the Institute of Mennonite Studies in 1974.

Driedger, Leo, “Ethnic Urban Dominance: Demographic, Ecological and Institutional Patterns.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Driedger, Leo, “The Peace Panorama: Struggle for the Mennonite Soul.” Presented at a Mennonite peace theology into the 90s colloquium in 1991.

Dueck, Abe J., “Church and State: Developments Among Mennonite Brethren in Canada Since World War II.” Presented at a symposium on influences upon Mennonite Brethren Theology, in 1980.

Doerksen, Victor G., “Post-War Developments in Canadian Mennonite Literature.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Durksen, Martin, and James Pankratz, “The Church in a Multi-Cultural Society.” Presented at a special seminar sponsored by the Ministers and Deacons of the Manitoba M. B. Conference, in 1977.

Dyck, John, Crosstown Credit Union Ltd. The First Fifty Years, 1944-1994. Manuscript made available before publication.

Epp, Frank H., “The Problem of Mennonite Identity: A Historical Case Study of One Canadian Minority Group.” Presented to the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association.

Epp, Frank H., “Keeping Body and Soul Together in Church History.” Presented at a Symposium on Mennonite Brethren History in 1975.

Epp, Frank H., “National Socialism among the Canadian Mennonites in the 1930s.” Presented at the fifteenth Conference on Mennonite and Educational and Cultural Problems in 1965.

Epp, Frank H., “Evangelism and Visions of a New World.” Presented at a workshop for the Canadian Congress on Evangelism, 1970.

Epp, George K., “The Third Wave of Mennonite Immigrants. Mennonite Immigration to Canada after World War II.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Epp, Mark, “Mennonites in Military Service during World War II.” Presented in a CMBC Religious Studies class in 1986.

Epp, Marlene, “The `Dress Question’ Among Ontario Mennonites, 1898-1960.” Cognate Essay written at the University of Waterloo in 1990.

Epp, Marlene, “The Memory of Violence: Mennonite Refugees and Rape in World War II.” Paper presented to the Canadian Historical Association in 1994.

Esau, David, “Mennonites and Music: Reshaping the Vision.” Presented in an MBBC Mennonite Studies class in 1988.

Fast, Peter D., “The Mennonite Pioneer Mission. A Venture of Faith.” Presented at the Mennonite Biblical Seminary in 1960.

Flynn, David, and Al Koop, “A Sense of Community: Three Mennonite Towns in Manitoba, Canada.” Presented at the XI Congress of Socioloty in New Delhi, India, in 1986.

Fransen, David., “`We Must Bring Christian Pressure to Bear:’ Mennonites and Alternative Service During the Second World War.” Presented at a Mennonite History Symposium in 1987.

Friesen, Abraham, “Winnipeg and the Mennonites 25 Years Later.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Friesen, John W., “Bias in Public Interpretations of the Amish: Are They Really That Nice?” Presented at a conference on Amish society in 1993.

Friesen, John, “Manitoba Mennonites: From the Farm to the City. A Study of the City Movement of Four Mennonite Church Conferences, 1936-1986.” Presented in a Mennonite Special Studies class in 1989.

Friesen, John, “Theological Developments in Canada during the 1950s and early 1960s.” Presented at a Symposium on Mennonites in Canada in 1988.

Friesen, Ted, “D. W. Friesen & Sons Ltd. A Concise History.” This is an early draft of a later published history.

Giesbrecht, Herbert, “Seeking a Faith to Live By: Modifying Influences upon the Faith confessed by Mennonite Brethren.” Presented at a symposium at the Centre for Mennonite Brethren Studies in Canada, in 1980.

Guenther, Bruce L., “`In the World but not of it’: Old Colony Mennonites, Evangelicalism and Contemporary Canadian Culture – A Case Study of Osler Mission Chapel (1974-94). A copy was made available courtesy of the author.

Hamm, Peter, “Continuity and Change among Canadian Mennonite Brethren.” Presented at a Study Conference on the Dynamics of Faith and Culture in the Mennonite Brethren Church, undated.

Harder, Henry, “A Short History of the Origins of the First United Mennonite Church, Vancouver, British Columbia.” Presented in a CMBC Religious Studies class in 1976.

Hein, Marvin, “The Church, its regulations, and the individual member.” Presented at a conference concerning church and home, in 1967.

Hunsberger, Catherine, ” A Study of the Issues and Events Surrounding the 1959-1960 Division in the Mennonite Conference of Ontario.” Presented in a CGC History class in 1988.

Jantz, Anita, “God and Humanity: Who Meets Who? (A Brief Look at Mennonite Confessions of Faith.” Presented to Lutheran Theological Seminary, in 1994.

Jantz, Harold, “Exploring an Uneasy Relationship.” Presented at a symposium on MB-GC relations in 1983.

Krahn, Victor, “The Effects of Small Business upon the Old Order Communities of Waterloo County.” Presented in a CGC sociology class in 1989.

Kreider, Robert, ed., “Interviews with Peter J. Dyck and Elfrieda Klassen Dyck.” The complete interview is available in the Conrad Grebel College library.

Letkemann, Peter, “Singing the New Song Together: MB-GC Relations in Music.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Loewen, Jacob, “The German Language, Culture and the Faith.” Presented at a study conference on the dynamics of faith and culture in Mennonite Brethren life, undated.

Loewen, Royden, “`The Children, the cows and my dear man and sister’: the transplanted lives of Mennonite farm women 1874-1900.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Malagar, P. J., “A Memorandum on building an indigenous church in India.” Prepared for the Mennonite Board of Missions and Charities and available in the Archives of the Mennonite Church IV-7-5, Mennonite Board of Missions and Charities, Executive Office, Correspondence Files, 1944-50, Box 45.

Martens, Grant, “World War Two and the Schoenwieser Mennonite Church.” Prepared for a CMBC Mennonite Studies class in 1988.

Martens, Hildegard M., “Mennonites from Mexico: Their Immigration and Settlement in Canada.” A research report prepared for Canada Manpower and Immigration and for the Mennonite Central Committee (Canada) in 1975.

Martin, Nancy, “The Purpose and Function of the Old Order Mennonite School System.” Prepared for a CMBC Religious Studies class in 1985.

Nord, Douglas C., “The Role of the Provinces in the Development of Canadian Immigration Policy.” Presented at a Western Social Science Association Meeting in 1979.

Owram, Doug., “Home and Family at Mid-Century.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Penner, Archie, “From Aeltester, Lehrer und Gemeinde to Baords, Pastors and Conferece.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Penner, Peter, “Mennonite Home Missions in thew 1950s.” Presented at a symposium on Mennonites in Canada in the 1950s, in 1988.

Peters, Conrad, “Reimer Express Lines.” Presented in a CMBC Mennonite Studies class in 1988.

Peters, John F., “Population Study of the Pennsylvania Dutch in Canada.” Presented at the National Council on Family Relations Conference, in 1988.

Plett, Edwin, “The Dispersion of the Evangelical Mennonite Church (Kleine Gemeinde) 1920-1980.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Reddig, Willa, “A History of the Mennonite Brethren Collegiate Institute.” Presented for a History of Canadian Education class in 1979.

Redekop, Cal., “The Structural Base of Mennonite Entrepreneurship.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Redekop, Cal, “The Religious Impuse and Economic Behaviour: A Suggestion for a New Direction.” Place of presentation not indicated, but dated 1988.

Redekop, John, “Dilemmas of Nationalism and National Unity in Canada since 1945.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Redekop, John, “Mennonite Brethren Schools in Canada: An Analysis of Institutional Objectives.” Place of presentation not indicated, but delivered in 1975.

Redekop, John, “The Involvement of Canadian Mennonites with Non-Mennonite National Religious Bodies.” Presented at a symposium on Canadian Mennonites and the Challenge of Nationalism, in 1993.

Redekop, John, “Mennonites and Politics in Canada and the United States. The State of the Analysis.” Presented at a Conference on Mennonite Studies in 1982.

Redekop, John, “Decades of Transition: North American Mennonite Brethren in Politics, 1940-1960.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Sawatzky, H. L., “Post World War II Mennonite Emigration from Canada to Latin America.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Sawatzky, Rodney, “History, Theology of.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Sawatzky, Rodney, “The Influence of World War II on Mennonite Theology.” Presented at a Symposium on Mennonites in Canada, in 1987.

Sawatzky, Rodney, “Beyond Modernity: A Vision for Believer’s Churches.” Presented at a Conrad Grebel College faculty seminar in 1989.

Sawatzky, Walter, “Essays in the History of the Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference (Rudnerwieder Gemeinde) 1936-1966.” Research paper prepared for the department of History at Goshen College.

Schellenberg, Dave, “The Beginnings of Missions in the Kleinegemeinde/Evangelical Mennonite Conference.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Schertz, Dean, “Mennonite Central Committee China Relief, 1945-1949.” Prepared for a History seminar at Goshen College in 1971.

Snyder, Arnold, “The Anabaptist Vision beyond Polygenesis: Recovering the Unity and Diversity of Anabaptism.” Place of presentation not indicated, but presented in 1993.

Socknat, Thomas, “The Fate of Liberal Pacifism in Canada during the Great War.” Presented to the Canadian Historical Association in 1980.

Strong-Boag, Veronica, “Women with a Choice: Canada’s Wage-earning Wives and the Construction of the Middle Class: 1945-60.” Presented at the Centre for Research in Women’s Studies and Gender Relations, in 1992.

Thiessen, Arden, “E. M. C. Theology in the Years of Transition.” Presented at an EMC History Symposium in 1987.

Toews, J. B., “Mennonite Brethren Identity in the Context of Changing Theological Influences.” Presented at a symposium on Mennonite Brethren History, in 1975.

Toews, J. B., “Influences that have affected educational processes in Mennonite Brethren schools.” Presented to an Inter-School Relations Committee of the Canadian Mennonite Brethren Conference in 1976.

Toews, J. B., “Influences on Mennonite Brethren Theology.” Presented at a Mennonite Brethren symposium in 1980.

Toews, J. J., “Hazards and Opportunities in the Evangelism of our Children.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Toews, Paul, “Faith in Culture and Culture in Faith: Mennonite Brethren Entertaining, Expasive, Separative and Assimilative views about the Relationship.” Presented at a Study Conference on the Dynamics of Faith and Culture in Mennonite Brethren, in 1986.

Unger, Walter, “Mennonite Brethren and General Conference Theology – A Common Center, A Single Foundation.” Presented at a symposium on Inter-Mennonite Relations: M.B.s and G.C.s in Canada, in 1983.

Urry, James, “Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth and the Mennonite Experience in Russia.” Presented at a conference on images of imperial Russia, in 1984.

Urry, James, “A Mennostaat for the Mennovolk: Mennonite fascist fantasies in Canada in the 1930s.” Presented to the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand, in 1992.

Warkentin, Henry, “The Children’s Missionary Movement in Canada.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.

Wiebe, Katie Funk, “The New Mennonite Brethren: In But Still Out?” Presented at a Study Conference on the Dynamics of Faith and Culture in Mennonite Brethren, undated.

Wiens, Rod, “The Fraser Valley Mennonites Struggle for Survival.” Place of presentation not indicated, but dated 1978.

Yoder, John Howard, “Anabaptist Vision and Mennonite Reality.” Place and date of presentation not indicated.